Before setting out on this epic journey of epicurean delight, I listed my goals in order of importance. Of course I wanted to eat pizza in Napoli’s oldest establishments, explore the preserved bread ovens of Pompeii, investigate small-production San Marzano tomatoes and taste the best olive oil in the world. But above all these thing remained one activity that would make the others pale in comparison.
I wanted to milk a water buffalo.
Unlike the cows milk mozzarella we have come to know and enjoy here in the US, Campania’s use of the word “mozzarella” refers only to that which is made from the milk of a water buffalo (pictured below). This isn’t the same animal we call buffalo in the US, but an animal first introduced to Italy by knights of the crusade over 1000 years ago. In Campania, the phrase “fior di latte,” or flower of milk, is used when referring to cows milk mozzarella.
My quest began in Pizzeria Notizia with the extremely passionate pizzaiolo Enzo Coccia. Having already scheduled visits to Le Tore olive oil and Miracle of San Gennaro tomatoes, Enzo was able to put me in contact with Barbara Guerra, who he referred to as a journalist, although I later learned that she is in charge of marketing and agricultural tourism for the city of Paestum. We met with Barbara early in the morning for a day of touring several buffalo farms and dairies in Paestum, an agricultural town south of Salerno. Much like the rest of Southern Italy, Paestum is rich with ancient Greek ruins. In fact, the homes and temples in Paestum are among the best preserved in the world.
The first stop on our tour was Azienda Agricola Barlotti. This dairy produces fresh mozzarella di bufala, ficotta di bufala, yogurt, gelato and other products of rich buffalo milk. The process begins when milk is combined from both the morning and evening milk extractions. Barlotti also purchases buffalo milk from a neighboring farm to combine with that of his own cows so the product will be as rich in nutrients as possible. The milk is then separated into its liquids (whey) and solids (curd, pictured below).
The curd is submerged in hot water (roughly 165 degrees Fahrenheit) and pulled to evenly expose the curd to heat. This is a delicate process and requires an extremely high level of skill. Once the cheese has achieved the proper texture, bits are pulled off and pinched with the thumbs and index fingers. This creates a visible piece on the surface of the cheese, which lets you know that your mozzarella was pulled by hand. The pinching process is responsible for mozzarella’s name, which is derived from the Italian “mozzare,” or “to cut.”
The mozzarella is warm when it is freshly formed, but the flavor and texture require a bit more time. We were told to return in 3 – 4 hours if we wanted to purchase that morning’s fresh cheese. Luckily, a worker spotted my dismay and offered a warm, fresh ball of cheese. This bite-sized piece is referred to as bocnccini (pictured below). The flavor was rich but extremely tart. I’m glad we returned later in the day for some well-set mozzarella.
Our next stop was Rivabianca, another producer of water buffalo products. I was amazed at how beautifully all the employees worked together to produce and package this cheese. I was told that Paestum is knows for its artisanal approach to mozzarella production, whereas other cities tend to meet the high demand by industrializing their production lines. Mozzarella di bufala adheres to high standards of production and packaging so that people all over the world can enjoy the same quality found in Italy. This cheese is protected by the European Union as an artisanal product that must be produced and packaged in Campania. If these standards are met, the product is awarded a DOP certification, as indicated by the blue and yellow stamps on the packages below.
Water buffalo milk is higher in butterfat and carries a slightly richer taste than cows’ milk. Some countries, including the US, require the use of pasteurized milk, so the mozzarella di bufala we receive is chemically different from Italian cheese. The bulk of mozzarella production in Paestum is from March – August, with an incredible mozzarella celebration from late April through early May.
The buffalo themselves are incredibly docile creatures. They are quiet and sweet but their smell could be enough to prevent me from moving to Paestum. It became clear from the start of our buffalo education that none of the animals are milked by hand, so my dream would go unfulfilled. I may have fallen short of my loftiest goal, but the flavor of this incredible cheese was well worth the trip.